There are hundreds of programming languages in existence today. Thankfully, prospective Front End Web Developers only have to learn a few core languages in order to get started in their new careers. Here are the five most essential programming languages in front end web development.


Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language used to create documents that will be displayed on a web browser. HTML instructs the browser on how to display data on the page. These instructions often cover the layout of the page, fonts, colors, headings, title, tables, and graphics. HTML5 Boilerplate is the most popular HTML framework in use today.

Why Web Developers Love HTML

One big reason developers love HTML is that they have to — HTML is the standard language used in the creation of websites and is supported by all modern Internet browsers including Chrome, Firefox, Edge, Safari, Samsung Internet, and Opera. HTML is so prevalent that it’s been used on at least 93% of all websites in the world.

Of course, that’s not the only reason to love HTML; it has a simple syntax that’s easy to learn and understand — so easy that even elementary school students can use it. There’s also a wide range of HTML templates, libraries, and frameworks available to make coding even easier. HTML is also well-liked because it’s a lightweight, platform-independent language so it loads easily and works across a variety of devices.

Why Web Developers Hate HTML

The biggest complaint that developers have about HTML is that it doesn’t have many capabilities. When used alone, HTML only produces a static page; it must be used in tandem with CSS and JavaScript to make websites interactive and aesthetically pleasing. HTML also isn’t very secure on its own — you must use third-party services to provide the security necessary to keep your website safe.

Another downside is that each page must be programmed separately with a lot of code required just to create a simple page. As a result, the coding for larger pages becomes bulky, complex, and difficult to navigate. This also makes coding with HTML somewhat time-consuming and monotonous.

Why HTML Is Necessary

The importance of HTML can not be overstated — it’s impossible to work in front end web development without using this essential language. HTML is a fundamental building block for all web pages and should be the first language any potential Front End Web Developer learns. Thankfully, HTML is beginner-friendly, easy to learn, and a valuable skill to acquire.


Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a language that’s used to style the text, color, buttons, and tables of a website plus structure how its pages are laid out. CSS allows for content and formatting to remain separate so webpages can adapt to different types of devices of various sizes. Some of the most frequently used CSS frameworks are Twitter Bootstrap, Tailwind CSS, Bulma, Foundation, Skeleton, UI Kit, Pure, Semantic UI, and Materialize.

Why Web Developers Love CSS

The primary reason Web Developers love CSS is that it easily adds style to boring webpages with just a few lines of code. And instead of coding each page of a website one by one, those few lines of code make it possible for styles to be applied consistently across an entire website, saving Web Developers an extraordinary amount of time.

The ability to control site-wide style with a small amount of code also helps when updating or maintaining the site; you only have to change one line of code to update the entire site which is much more efficient than changing pages one at a time. As an added bonus, site performance is improved thanks to the small CSS code footprint.

Why Web Developers Hate CSS

The biggest complaint regarding CSS is it doesn’t always work consistently on various browsers; Web Developers need to run the program across multiple browsers to test for compatibility. This type of cross-checking for compatibility doesn’t just happen after initial coding, it must also be done any time changes are made to the code, which can be frustrating and time-consuming.

Another issue with CSS is its lack of security. Because it’s an open text-based system, there’s no built-in security to protect CSS from being overridden, whether done intentionally or by accident. There are also different levels of CSS which can create confusion, especially for beginners.

Why CSS Is Necessary

CSS is necessary because without it, webpages look awful. If a website were to use HTML alone without incorporating CSS, it would just be text on a plain white background, which isn’t very interesting to look at. HTML and CSS must be paired together to create visually appealing websites. HTML is used to specify what content should be on the page while CSS provides all the style, including font type, color, layout, and more. When building websites, it’s practically impossible to create an inviting, interesting website without CSS.


JavaScript is a language used to program the behavior of web pages, making them more dynamic and interactive to engage the user. For example, JavaScript can be used to play audio or video, display animations, progress through a slideshow of various pictures, and alter a button’s colors when a mouse hovers over it. Vue.js, Angular, and Svelte are the most common JavaScript frameworks used in front end web development. The most popular JavaScript library in use today is React, which was created by Facebook.

Why Web Developers Love JavaScript

There are many reasons why Web Developers love JavaScript but the biggest one is likely to be JavaScript’s versatility; it can be used in a variety of ways, including on websites, web applications, games, and mobile apps. JavaScript also works well with other languages and can be inserted into any webpage regardless of the file extension. And thanks to the runtime environment Node.js, which allows JavaScript to run on the server side, it’s even possible to build an application from back to front using JavaScript.

JavaScript is also well-liked for its speed and ease of use. JavaScript gets executed on the client side so code functions can run immediately, reducing demand on the server and increasing speed to the end user. It’s relatively easy to implement JavaScript and there’s a wide range of frameworks, libraries, and tools to speed up programming, which also make it a favorite among developers.

Why Web Developers Hate JavaScript

Though there are a lot of reasons to love JavaScript, it certainly isn’t perfect. One of the biggest complaints about JavaScript is that it’s not always interpreted the same way by various browsers. Each browser writes its own interpreter for JavaScript, which can cause websites to display JavaScript elements incorrectly. To avoid this issue, developers have to test sites in as many browsers as possible — a time-consuming task that can slow down the development process.

Another issue with JavaScript is that it doesn’t work particularly well on large applications; the code tends to become bloated, slowing down responsiveness. Security is also problematic; because JavaScript code executes on users’ computers, it can be exploited for malicious purposes. There are also inconsistencies in JavaScript’s syntax, which can frustrate programmers.

Why JavaScript Is Necessary

The primary reason why JavaScript is necessary in front end web development is that it adds interactivity to webpages; HTML determines the content and CSS styles it while JavaScript brings it all to life. It’s difficult to create dynamic, user-friendly websites without JavaScript, which is why it’s so prevalent — JavaScript can be found on the front end of more than 97% of all websites in existence. It’s so ubiquitous that support for JavaScript is built into every modern web browser, including Chrome, Firefox, and Microsoft Edge.


JSX, which stands for JavaScript XML, is a syntax extension of JavaScript used in the React library; it allows programmers to structure components using language similar to HTML embedded within JavaScript code. JSX is typically used to describe what a site’s user interface (UI) should look like, which React then transforms into DOM elements. While JSX is not required to create React applications, it does speed up programming by simplifying the coding language.

Why Web Developers Love JSX

The primary reason developers love JSX is that it embeds HTML into JavaSCript to make the code easier to understand. Using JSX also provides clearer error and warning messages, which saves programmers a considerable amount of time when it comes to finding errors and debugging code. JSX is also well-liked because it performs optimizations while compiling the source code, making it faster compared to code written in vanilla JavaScript. And because of their similarities, JSX is easy to learn for those who already know HTML.

Why Web Developers Hate JSX

The primary arguments against JSX are about the code itself. Some developers criticize JSX’s confusing syntax and argue that the code could be more concise. Others complain that JSX mixes logic and markup, a practice that once was discouraged. And while JSX is supposedly optional, trying to use React without JSX becomes messy, practically forcing developers to adopt its usage.

Why JSX Is Necessary

JSX is necessary mostly because of the popularity of React. React is the number one library in use today with more than 41% of Web Developers surveyed by Stack Overflow in 2021 reporting regular usage in the previous year. Keep in mind that React is a front end library used to create user interfaces (UI) and the survey doesn’t separate responses out by job title; if you surveyed Front End Web Developers only, reported usage of React would be even higher.

And the popularity of React doesn’t seem to be waning at all. It was even named the top skill that Web Developers most wanted to acquire in 2021. With this kind of popularity, React won’t be going away any time soon. That’s why prospective Front End Web Developers should seriously consider adding React — including JSX — to their skill set.


TypeScript is an open-source programming language that was created by Microsoft in 2012. As a superset of JavaScript, TypeScript is capable of running wherever JavaScript does, either on the front or back end. The primary benefit of TypeScript is that it allows optional static typing, classes, and modules to be added to JavaScript so it can be used in the development of large applications. TypeScript also makes it possible for programmers to catch common errors early in the development process, making JavaScript development more efficient.

Why Web Developers Love TypeScript

There’s no doubt that programmers enjoy using TypeScript — it earned a spot as the third most loved programming language in Stack Overflow’s 2021 survey of Web Developers worldwide. So what makes TypeScript such a popular choice among developers? TypeScript’s biggest advantage is that it helps developers avoid unnecessary errors that are common when coding in JavaScript and makes it easier for them to refactor code.

TypeScript is also easy to learn. Since it’s essentially the same as JavaScript, anyone who already knows JavaScript will be able to use TypeScript. An added bonus is that all JavaScript libraries can be used just as easily in TypeScript, which greatly simplifies coding.

Why Web Developers Hate TypeScript

The biggest argument against TypeScript is that it’s more time-consuming to use due to its static typing. When coding with TypeScript, types are written explicitly, which requires a bit more work upfront compared to creating projects with vanilla JavaScript. Some programmers dislike this initial investment of additional time, even though they typically end up saving time in the long run because this feature helps avoid typing errors.

Another complaint that developers have about TypeScript is that there are no tools available that automatically convert large JavaScript projects to TypeScript. Conversion is done by the compiler, which consumes additional time and CPU resources. TypeScript also isn’t the best choice for live coding; with TypeScript, you have to wait a couple of seconds to see changes in the browser when doing live updates while changes in JavaScript can be viewed almost instantaneously.

Why TypeScript Is Necessary

Though there are a few disadvantages to using TypeScript, they’re far outweighed by the advantages offered by the programming language; TypeScript is more reliable and easier to debug than JavaScript which saves time and improves overall project quality. TypeScript also is better-suited to work on large-scale applications compared to JavaScript; in fact, it’s sometimes referred to as “JavaScript that scales.”

Another reason TypeScript is a necessary skill is that it’s already being widely used in the developer community. In the 2020 State of JavaScript survey, TypeScript was reported to be the most widely used variation of JavaScript with 78% of programmers reporting regular usage. Not only do developers use TypeScript, they also love it; in the same survey, 93% of respondents reported being satisfied with TypeScript — that’s more than 20% higher than the runner-up.

Of course, there’s no point in attempting to learn TypeScript if you don’t already know JavaScript. Knowledge of JavaScript must come first, but once you have that in your skill set, it’s an excellent idea to add TypeScript. They’re practically interchangeable, so it only makes sense to invest a little bit of time learning static typing so you can eliminate unnecessary errors and streamline development.

How to Become a Front End Developer

The fastest way to become qualified as a Front End Web Developer is to enroll in a web development bootcamp. Bootcamps are intensive programs designed to prepare students for a new career within a few months’ time. With their accelerated schedules and skill-focused curriculum, bootcamps are an excellent alternative to a traditional four-year degree. You can even find web development bootcamps available live online so you can acquire the skills you need without having to endure a long commute.

If you want to learn more about web development but aren’t quite ready to commit to a full bootcamp, then consider enrolling in one or two live online web development classes. There is a wide range of options available to help you get started on your programming education; you can take web development courses on front end languages and tools such as HTML, CSS, JavaScript, React, GitHub, and more.